Nigeria rose three spots in the 2022 Global Peace Index (GPI) ranking. In 2021, Nigeria was 146th on the continent and almost topped the list of the least peaceful countries worldwide. Now, the country is ranked 143rd.
Despite its milestones, Nigeria is still considered unstable because of its political upheaval and shaky security. According to the report, Sub-Saharan Africa had a minor decline in peace, with the average national score falling by 0.022 points or 1%.
The region is considered less peaceful than the global average in the Safety and Security and Ongoing Conflict domains but more peaceful than the worldwide average in the Militarisation area.
Let’s look at Nigeria and some of the least peaceful countries.
Particularly in the Northern and Southern regions of the country, instability and political turmoil are rife. This is primarily due to the Islamist insurgency and continuous militia activities called “banditry.” In addition, the Biafra separatist conflict has caused a disturbance in the southern areas.
According to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED), organised political violence incidents rose by 22% in Nigeria in 2021, with more than 9,900 fatalities. This is a 30% rise from 2020.
Due to the coup in January 2022, Burkina Faso experienced the second-largest decline in peace rate, which had a significant impact on all its three domains. This also affected its relationship with neighbouring nations and United Nations peacekeeping financing.
Due to the government’s incapacity to control the escalating Islamic insurgency and the declining security, the military imprisoned President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré.
According to the 2022 Global Terrorism Index (GTI), Burkina Faso is the third-most country affected by terrorism. It also had the second-highest number of terrorist incidents in 2021.
In 2021, Ethiopia’s human rights and the humanitarian situation worsened as citizens were affected by a severe conflict in Tigray, abuses by the security forces, armed group assaults, and fatal interethnic violence in other regions.
Government forces and their supporters carried out indiscriminate bombardment, plunder, attacks on schools and hospitals, large-scale massacres, and widespread sexual violence in Tigray.
Over 350,000 people were starving as a result of this inhumane action. Following the withdrawal of government forces from Tigray, a siege was imposed, preventing almost all humanitarian aid from getting there.
According to the United Nations 2022 Peace and Security report, insecurity and the humanitarian situation have gotten worse, children are out of school, and the nation is suffering from a never-ending cycle of instability.
This will result in the greatest degree of food insecurity since 2014, with more than 1.8 million individuals predicted to require food assistance in 2022, compared to 1.3 million in 2021.
Since 2012, the Malian government has seen a string of setbacks, including a botched military coup d’état, warfare between government troops and Tuareg rebels, and the radical extremist takeover of its northern territories.
In the first quarter of 2022, the United Nations (UN) reported that Libya was experiencing a crisis that, if left unattended to, may cause instability and result in the establishment of rival governments.
Also, from the World Bank’s Economic Report on Libya, political and security concerns and interruptions in oil production have increased since the general elections were postponed in 2021.
The ratification of a new cabinet by the House of Representatives has brought institutional strife back to Libya.